Contact Us

A Thermodynamic Model of Nickel Smelting and Direct High

A thermodynamic model of the nickel AsO1.5, SbO1.5, BiO1.5, MgO, CaO, SiO2,Al2O3 smelting process was recently developed by the one of Gas SO 2 ,N 2

A Thermodynamic Model of Nickel Smelting and Direct High

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high

01/04/2001 A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high

The model predictions are compared with the known industrial data from the Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (Kalgoorlie, Australia), the Outokumpu Harjavalta Nickel Smelter (Harjavalta, Finland), the INCO Metals Company (Sudbury, Canada), and from a number of experimental data. An excellent agreement is obtained. It was found that the distribution behaviors of Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the nickel smelting

Neural Network Model of the Process Nickel-Smelting of

analysis of the chemical composition of the matte, the model must be developed to calculate the composition of those matte-Kusch time. Thus, the model will predict children, matte on the chemical composition of 2 hours ahead. For the synthesis of such a model is proposed we used a mathematical apparatus of artificial neural networks (ANN). As a single-layer structure of the network topology

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high

01/04/2001 A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part I. Model development and validation NASA/ADS. A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high

01/04/2001 A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and

Advanced Metallurgical Modelling of Ni-Cu Smelting at

Applications of the model The model has been used extensively at the Xstrata Nickel smelter for: •Scenario planning (shut down/maintenance, equipment availability, dealing with feed changes, removing or adding new vessels.) •Environmental aspects (CO 2 and SO 2 emissions) •Alternative operating options (technical and economic feasibility studies)

Modelling of Nickel Laterite Smelting to Ferronickel

Keywords: nickel laterite smelting, ferronickel Most nickel is produced as the metal, but about a third of the world’s new nickel is ferronickel. World annual production of ferronickel is around 250,000 tonnes, with the two largest producers being BHP Billiton and Société Le Nickel (Cartman, 2010). Most of the

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process. In this model, as many as 16 elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H) are considered, and two nickel sulfide

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and Bi

Nickel: smelting, producing-Metalpedia

Nickel: smelting; Extraction and purification; Nickel is recovered through extractive metallurgy: it is extracted from its ores by conventional roasting and reduction processes that yield a metal of greater than 75% purity. In many stainless steel applications, 75% pure nickel can be used without further purification, depending on the composition of the impurities.

Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites

The smelting of nickel laterite ores to ferronickel alloy is unique in extractive metallurgy. It treats feed that is very low grade with respect to the target metal and, as a result, produces much

Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites

In this work, the main characteristics of nickel laterite smelting are reviewed, and then a simple and transparent computational thermodynamics model of the electric furnace smelting step is developed. This model predicts the nickel grade, nickel recovery and FeO content of the slag as functions of the iron recovery to ferronickel satisfactorily. It correctly predicts that the carbon and

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nickel

Abstract: The primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from nickel smelting products have been assessed through case studies using a process model based on mass and energy balance. The required primary energy for producing nickel metal, nickel oxide, ferronickel, and nickel pig iron is 174 GJ/t alloy (174 GJ/t contained Ni), 369 GJ/t alloy (485 GJ/t contained Ni), 110 GJ/t alloy

THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A CFD MODEL OF

A CFD MODEL OF COPPER FLASH SMELTING Matthew WHITE1, Ross HAYWOOD1*, D. John RANASINGHE2, Shu CHEN2 1 Hatch and copper-nickel concentrates based on flash smelting was first suggested in 1936, but actual commercial development did not proceed for more than a decade (Habashi 1998). By the early 1950’s both Inco (Copper Cliff, Canada) and Outokumpu (Harjavalta,

Our Environment Kabanga Nickel

Traditionally, nickel sulphide deposits require smelting for beneficiation, which has a significantly greater environmental impact. Kabanga will be different, delivering Class 1 nickel on a sustainable basis". Kabanga will be a complete cradle-to-gate nickel operation that will be “greener” than industry averages because the refined metals will be produced in-country without smelting or

The Project Kabanga Nickel

Kabanga Nickel is currently in the process of modernizing the mineral resource model by translation into state-of-the-art modelling software. This will culminate in higher-resolution lode modelling and consequent mineral resource optimization. A revised Mineral Resource Estimate will be published in the near future. Project Location. The Kabanga deposit is located in the north-west of Tanzania

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and Bi

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process. In this model, as many as 16 elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H) are considered, and two nickel sulfide

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes : Part I.: Model development and validation. Tan, Pengfu; Neuschütz, Dieter. Warrendale, Pa (2001) [Journal Article] Metallurgical and materials transactions / B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Page(s): 341-351. Identifier. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-001-0057-z

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct

A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part II. distribution behaviors of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, and Bi

Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites

The smelting of nickel laterite ores to ferronickel alloy is unique in extractive metallurgy. It treats feed that is very low grade with respect to the target metal and, as a result, produces much

Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites

In this work, the main characteristics of nickel laterite smelting are reviewed, and then a simple and transparent computational thermodynamics model of the electric furnace smelting step is developed. This model predicts the nickel grade, nickel recovery and FeO content of the slag as functions of the iron recovery to ferronickel satisfactorily. It correctly predicts that the carbon and

Reductive Smelting for the Recovery of Nickel in a DC Arc

Reductive Smelting for the Recovery of Nickel in a DC Arc Furnace Rodney T. Jones Mintek 200 Malibongwe Drive Randburg, South Africa Keywords: Pyrometallurgy, reductive smelting, DC arc furnace, nickel, water atomization Abstract It is possible to recover nickel pyrometallurgically from a variety of secondary materials, such as slag, where the nickel is present either as entrained metallic

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL OF ELECTRIC

SMELTING NICKEL CALCINE Allan RUNSTEDTLER1, Patrick BOISVERT1, David TISDALE2, Murray GREENFIELD2, Eddy CHUI1 and Adrian MAJESKI1 1 Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1M1, Canada 2 Xstrata Nickel, Longyear Dr., Falconbridge, Ontario, P0M 1S0, Canada ABSTRACT A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was

THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A CFD MODEL OF

A CFD MODEL OF COPPER FLASH SMELTING Matthew WHITE1, Ross HAYWOOD1*, D. John RANASINGHE2, Shu CHEN2 1 Hatch and copper-nickel concentrates based on flash smelting was first suggested in 1936, but actual commercial development did not proceed for more than a decade (Habashi 1998). By the early 1950’s both Inco (Copper Cliff, Canada) and Outokumpu (Harjavalta,

(PDF) Overview of Nickel Industry in Indonesia Agus

Habibie proposed an integrated Dr. Hari Suharyono industry as an alternative model for developing Published by: Mamberamo Information Center (MIC) industry in Mamberamo area, which consisted of BPPT Building II, 20 Floor Jl. M.H. Thamrin 8, Jakarta 10340 copper concentrate processing plant, sulfuric acid and Indonesia nickel smelting plant. Telp. +62-21-316-9783 Fax. +62-21-316-9765